Address their understanding of how the ADA and laws are applied to working with students or adults with disabilities.

Socorro Matias


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Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities when received federal funds (U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights., 2015). Students with disability have the right to receive a “free appropriate public education”(FAPE) regarding the nature or severity of the disability (U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. (2015). In 1975, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act was created (Zunker, 2016). This Act requires that all children 3 to 21 received education in regular classroom when it is possible (Zunker, 2016). This Act was amendment for include serving children from birth to 3 years old who needs early intervention. This was called Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 1990 (Zunker, 2016). Students, who do not qualified for special education services under IDEA, may be eligible for some accommodations under Section 504 (Zunker, 2016). The American with Disability Act was signed in 1990 (Zunker, 2016). This is a law that prohibits that a person with disability be discriminate in areas such employment, transportation, public accommodations, communications and access to state and local government programs and services (United States Department of Labor).

I used to work with adults with intellectual disabilities. The clients were trained in major areas as hygiene, daily living tasks such cooked, cleaning, wash clothes, prepared to work, in overall have a quality of life, be independent within the dependence. As we work with the client, we need to work with parents and the community. Work with parents, because they were feared that their sons can be mistreated due to the disability. Work with the community, because they need to be educated that a person with a disability has the same chance to work as other people who do not have a disability. Was hard enough, but finally, our clients get a job in the community.

In general terms, it is important to know the laws that protect the persons with disability are. Not knowing them can lead to having problems such as being sued, or loss of the license. As counselor, it is necessary to follow the rules. The American Counseling Association Code of Ethics (2014), Section C5 refers to a nondiscrimination based on age, gender, culture, disability and so on or in any basis protected by law.

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Shannon Flanagan

Unit 7 Discussion 1


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The Americans with DIsabilities Act (ADA) stops any discrimination against people with disabilities within employment, transportation, public accomidations such as school systems, and assures access to state and governemnt assistance programs. This protects the rights of both employers and those who are seeking jobs. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is responsible for closed captioning on public service announcements.

The Office of Civil Rights (OCR), the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services (OSERS) are responsible for helping students receive their 504 plans in school systems. The OCR also enforces Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. This extends prohibition against discrimination to state and government services such as programs and activites, such as in public schools. The section 504 prohibits any discrimination based on disability on any activites that recieve financial assitance from the government. Each state has their own agency which is responsible for the IDEA within their own state and helping with funds for special education programs in school systems. The OCR is responsible for acting upon any complaints from parents or students who feel that they are not receiving the proper help from their 504 plan. The OCR also provides technical assistance to schools, parents, or advocates for those with disabilities. Specific regulations within a school could consist of regular classrooms for students with disabilities, or supplementary services to help students succeed within these regular classes (U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, 2015)

According to the American Counseling Assoctiation (ACA) Code of Ethics C.5 Counselors are not allowed to engage in discrimination against clients or students based upon any culture, age, ehtnicity, race, disability, religion, or other factor. With this in place, along with many other legal laws such as 504 and the Americans with Disabilities Act, students are given specific plans in school systems that help them based upon their specific disability receive the same education as all other students.

For this case, I am not worried about confidentiality as I will be discussing myself. While I do not have what most think of as a disability, I was able to receive a 504 plan in high school due to my type 1 diabetes. In college, I am able to receive disability services due to not only my diabetes but my current pregnancy, Health issues are never easy, but receiving these 504 plans in the past have dramatically helped me.

The plan stated that I was able to attend any event even if my diabetes would seem to be an issue. I would receive accommodations such as making sure a nurse was available at all times even in special events or on school trips. This was sometimes a challenge, for example, when the entire grade went to Disney World, the school had to find a covering nurse for the school in order to have the regular nurse attend the trip with us. I would also receive special accommodations such as extra time on tests in case a health issue would arise during the test. While I admit that sometimes these accommodations seem foolish, and made me feel like I was somehow different from my peers, in the end it did really help me and I am grateful for the 504 plan that my parents made sure the school provided for me.

At the moment, I cannot remember who was responsible for creating my 504 plan. I believe it was the school counselor, but I remember them having no clue about my diabetes and it is hard for me to believe that they were able to make this plan without the help of others. I know my mother helped by stating my needs and what she wished the plan would include, such as extra time on standardized tests. I also remember needing to make sure that the plan was updated and continued every few years, as I had a 504 plan from grades seventh through twelfth grade.

Other than the U.S. Department of Labor, other government agencies have a role in helping to maintain the Americans with Disabilities Act. They include the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity COmmission (EEOC) which states that employers cannot discriminate against qualified individuals because of their disability. The U.S. Department of Transportation is in charge of enforcing regulations on the transit which ensures any transportation needs do not discriminate on the basis of a disability. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is in charge of maintaining regulations for the disabled involving telecommunication services, including phone and internet services. The U.S. Department of Justice enforces the ADA regulations as well as public accommodations, both Titles II and III. The U.S. Department of Education is also in charge of enforcing TItle II which prohibits discimination in programs or activities that receive any government assistance. Two other programs that follow ADA regulations are the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) which enforces the ability to access programs and activities that are receiving any federal assistance, and the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (ATBCB) issues guidelines to ensure building and facilities can accommodate all those with different disabilities (U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, 2015).

Finally, there are two agencies within the U.S. Department of Labor which are responsible for enforcing the ADA, including the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) as well as the Civil Rights Center (CRC) as it applies to labor and work within governmental agencies. Each of these departments has their own responsibility to ensure that the Americans with Disabilities Act is being upheld in all areas of governmental assistance programs. If at any point these departments are found in noncompliance with the ADA, they will be stripped of their federal assistance and the department would be unable to run effectively. This insures that all departments are keeping with their responsibilities in ensuring all aspects of the Americans with Disabilities Act (United States Department of Labor).

What reactions do you have to the ideas they presented? Include examples ] to support your perspective, and raise questions to continue the dialogue.Bottom of Form

Socorro Matias


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Taneka is a 17 year old African American female who is seeking career counseling. She went to HH Group Counseling and set an appointment to see Dr. KK. Taneka start the career counseling and it has been about four sessions where Dr. KK has been recording without telling her.

NCDA Code of Ethics and ACA Code of Ethics: Section B Records and Documentation

NCDA-B.6.b. and ACA- B.6.c. – Permission to record- Career professionals and/or counselors obtain permission from clients prior to recording sessions through electronic or other means.

Clearly Dr. KK is violating the section B of the Code of ethics. It can be recommended that the career counseling be terminated and the recordings be given to the girl or be destroyed. And for Dr. KK, the Board can recommend a sanction due to violate the Code.

Taneka is a 17 year old African American female who is seeking career counseling. She went to the counselor’s office and since the first moment the counselor start to having romantic feelings toward Taneka. The counselor continues with the sessions being aware of the feelings, but having hope to not showing them.

NCDA Code of Ethics Section A.5 Roles and relationships with clients

A.5.a. – Currents clients- Sexual or romantic interactions or relationships with currents clients, their romantic partners or their family members are prohibited.

ACA Code of Ethics Section A.5 Prohibited noncounseling roles and relationships

A.5.a. Sexual and/or romantic relationships prohibited- Sexual and/or romantic counselor-client interactions or relationships with current clients, their romantic partners, or their family members are prohibited. This prohibition applies to both in person and electronic interactions or relationships.

What the counselor has to do is to refer the client to another professional due to having feelings toward the counselee.

Shannon Flanagan


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In the case scenario involving student Taneka and the school counselor, two ethical issues arose that the counselor must address. First, the counselor assured Tankea that her confidentiality will be kept. However, she did not lock the door to her office which holds important confidential information. The counselor also did not put a passcode on her computer which help important confidential information. This makes it very easy for others to break into the information they would like to receive about Taneka. According to the American Counseling Association Code of Ethics (2014) B.6.b. Confidentiality of Records and Documentation Counselors ensure that records and documentation kept in any medium are secure and that only authorized persons have access to them. This means that it is the counselor’s ethical responsibility to ensure that all confidential documents are kept safe. If the counselor is not taking these measures such as securing technology and physical files within the office, then the counselor is breaking this code.

In the second situation, the counselor wants to administer a test to Taneka that she has no experience or training. Still, the counselor feels that what she was told about the test from colleagues assures that the test will benefit Taneka. This is breaking a code from the National Board of Certified Counselors which states C.2. Professional Competence C.2.a. Boundaries of Competence Career professionals practice only within the boundaries of their competence, based on their education, training, supervised experience, state and national professional credentials, and appropriate professional experience. This means that the counselor was not acting ethically even if administering the test was in her best intentions, she still had no training on the test and may not have been helping Tankea with counselor but rather setting her back with false information. In this case, the counselor should have made sure she had the proper training on any assessment she was to give to her students beforehand, and if not then only administered assessments where she had previously received training.

Provide feedback on your peer’s literature review, focusing on the objectives of synthesizing what is known on a specific topic. Then apply the following criteria to the review:

  • Analyzes scholarly resources to determine relevance to a particular research question.
  • Evaluates research findings in relation to particular cultures or societal groups.
  • Synthesizes the findings of multiple research sources into a coherent summary of the current state of knowledge on a particular topic.
  • Articulates the significance of research findings to a particular research question.

Explain respectfully how you would grade it based on what you have seen in the first 800 words. Also, provide any suggestions you have for enhancing your peer’s work.



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I work with several children and adolescents who have been diagnosed with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Each time that I am linked with a new client, I read their comprehensive intake assessment, Initial Psychiatric Evaluation, and Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths Assessment thoroughly to get an accurate understanding of this child’s background. While doing this I also make sure to have the DSM-5 with me to double-check the information to make sure that they meet the criteria for PTSD. As I am reading this information, I question how this diagnosis and these adverse childhood experiences will affect their lives as adults. More specifically and what my research will be based on is how we can determine if childhood trauma leads to Complex PTSD in adults and what treatment options would we need to provide for these adults. Schoedl, Costa, Fossaluza, Mari, & Mello (2014) discuss that traumatic experiences during childhood are strong predictors of many mental disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorders and it is believed that some resilience factors are a belief in some type of religion and strong adaptive strategies to name a few. This could support why adverse childhood experiences can lead to PTSD.

Jowett, Karatzias, Shevlin, & Albert (2019) discussed that some researchers argue that C-PTSD could also result from single, catastrophic events that could occur in childhood or adulthood such as prolonged torture. Pratchett & Yehuda (2011) also support this claim in that PTSD is found to be more common in adults than in children who experienced childhood abuse which assumes that there is a strong causal association between exposure to childhood abuse and adult PTSD. Leonard (2018) discussed that PTSD is generally related to a single event, while complex PTSD is related to a series of events, or one prolonged event. It is also important to note that Leonard (2018) states that the international classification of disease (ICD) identifies complex PTSD as a separate condition, though the DSM-5 currently does not.

Knowing this information, it would seem that the treatment need would have to consist of exploring the past, determine how it is affecting the present and evaluating what the future would look like for the individual. Fani, Bradley-Davino, Ressler, & McClure-Tone (2011) measured attentional bias for emotional cues (angry faces, happy faces) by using the Dot Probe Task, to significantly mediate associations between childhood maltreatment and adult PTSD symptoms to determine the prevalence of avoidance and numbing symptoms. Shuwiekh, Kira, & Ashby (2018) discussed two perspectives, one is that emotional struggle in wake of trauma pushes forward growth and the other looks at the phenomenon as powerful self-enhancing/or negative self-deceptive illusions and defensive strategies that attempt to alleviate distress when promoting posttraumatic stress growth. Essentially, it is looking at how can therapy help an individual with PTSD grow from their trauma and use it as a source of motivation instead of letting it hinder them.

When looking at diagnosis an individual with PTSD or CPTSD one has to look at the determining actors that warrant the diagnosis. An individual must meet the diagnostic criteria in order to receive an official diagnosis. The professional providing the diagnosis must also rule out that the criteria being met could not be better explained by another diagnosis. Cloitre, Garvert, Weiss, Carlson, & Bryant (2014) discuss that there has long been debate about whether Complex PTSD is distinct from Borderline Personality Disorder comorbid with PTSD with the difficulty being the lack of clear and consistent characteristics of Complex PTSD. It was also discussed that each diagnosis can be a stand-alone diagnosis from each other.


Cloitre, M., Garvert, D. W., Weiss, B., Carlson, E. B., & Bryant, R. A. (2014). Distinguishing PTSD, complex PTSD, and borderline personality disorder: A latent class analysis. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5(1), 25097-10. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v5.25097

Fani, N., Bradley-Davino, B., Ressler, K. J., & McClure-Tone, E. B. (2011). Attention bias in adult survivors of childhood maltreatment with and without posttraumatic stress disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35(1), 57-67.

Jowett, S., Karatzias, T., Shevlin, M., & Albert, I. (2019, July 1). Differentiating Symptom Profiles of ICD-11, Complex PTSD, and Borderline Personality Disorder: A Latent Class Analysis in a Multiply Traumatized Sample. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. Advance online publication.

Leonard, J. (2018, August 28). Complex PTSD: Symptoms, behaviors, and recovery. Retrieved from

Pratchett, L. C., & Yehuda, R. (2011). Foundations of posttraumatic stress disorder: Does early life trauma lead to adult posttraumatic stress disorder? Development and Psychopathology, 23(2), 477–491.…

Schoedl, A.F., Costa, M. P., Fossaluza, V., Mari, J. J., & Mello, M. F. (2014). Specific traumatic events during childhood as risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder development in adults. Journal of Health Psychology, 19(7), 847-857.

Shuwiekh, H., Kira, I. A., & Ashby, J. S. (2018). What are the personality and trauma dynamics that contribute to posttraumatic growth? International Journal of Stress Management, 25(2), 181-194. doi:10.1037/str0000054

provide substantive feedback on the choice of resources. Provide suggestions for improving options in the community in question by finding national programs or state-developed programs that address the specific focus of your peer’s post. How will the addition of such programs or concepts within this field of interest support the cognitive and mental issues of the aging population?Bottom of Form

Latonya Jones


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The Alzheimer’s Related Care Community

The ARC offers the first free-standing Alzheimer’s and Dementia Facility in North Carolina with the closest agency to be being in Jacksonville, NC. The ARC mentions that it is dedicated to assisting patients with Alzheimer’s and other cognitive related diagnoses. The ARC has successfully implemented the Restorative Alzheimer’s Programming which includes assessing the patient to see if they will benefit from the ARC and providing admitted patients with an individualized treatment plan. The program also works to assist patient’s life skills and improving their functioning.

1241 Onslow Pines Road
Jacksonville, NC 28540
P: (910) 347-3092
F: (910) 347-5940

Brookdale Senior Living

This program offers a Memory Care program which provides an individualized program for individuals with Alzheimer’s or Dementia diagnoses. The program prides itself in offering safe, secure, and research-based activities that are beneficial for the care of patient’s in the program. Additionally, the website goes on to mention that patients are provided structure, but they are also able to go to socials and events at the senior center. This program is slightly different than the first program that I mentioned because it also offers group activities that are designed to assist with mental health, physical health and spiritual well-being.

3619 South Mebane Street
Burlington, NC 27215

Triad Memory Care

This program doesn’t offer much information on the website about treatment aside from the staff are well-trained to assist patients with Alzheimer’s and Dementia. Patients are provided an individualized plan that will assist them in functioning in the facility. The website goes on to state that patients are treated as though they are family members and are provided housekeeping and a dietary staff. Insurance and steps for determining rather or not you are qualified to utilize insurance has been uploaded on a separate link for caregivers to view.

413 N Main Street, Kernersville, NC 27284


DePaul Senior Living

DePaul is a Senior Living Community that specializes in Alzheimer’s and Dementia care. The website reports that their memory care unit is beneficial in assisting patients who have the tendency to wonder and need a secure setting. The website goes on to mention that the Senior Living Community also assists patients in bathing, eating, and promoting independence in those who are limited in their ability to remember daily activities. Staff members are trained to provide individualized care to patients and they work directly with the family members and the team in order to formulate goals that will be beneficial for the patient’s well-being.

1931 Buffalo Road, Rochester, NY 14624 585-426-8000

Ranson Ridge Assisted Living & Memory Care was named after the Ranson family who purchased 160 acres of land in the area and started a Presbyterian Church. Ranson Ridge is currently apart of the Huntersville Cares campaign in which they promote Alzheimer’s and Dementia Awareness and resources to the community. Additionally, nursing staff, on-site physicians, lab services, and 3 meals are provided a day. At this time, the Ranson Ridge Assisted Living & Memory Care facility does not accept insurance and is only for private pay patients. They have admitted that this can get costly, but the quality of care that patients receive will reflect with the price.

Ranson Ridge Assisted Living & Memory Care

13910 Hunton Ln; Huntersville, NC 28078

Goldsboro Assisted Living and Alzheimer’s Care

Goldsboro Assisted Living and Alzheimer’s Care is a facility that offers individualized plans that fit the needs of patients who have Alzheimer’s. Treatment is based upon the need and ability of the patient. This facility provides a safe environment for patients to roam freely without concern that they will wander or roam and potentially get hurt. This facility accepts Medicaid, VA insurance and self-pay.

2201 Royall Avenue
Goldsboro, NC 27534

(919) 735-7684

I was pleasantly surprised to see that there are so many facilities in North Carolina that cater to Alzheimer’s and Dementia patients. All the facilities mention the importance of patients having safety, security, and the ability to roam freely at the facilities. Additionally, the websites discuss the importance of implementing independence but still being available to assist patients when they need additional support. The closest facility to me is in Jacksonville, NC.

All the websites mention the importance of implementing individualized care, but I rarely saw any information that discussed the importance of providing caregivers assistance and resources that can be beneficial when interacting with their loved one who is at the facility. I also feel that there is an additional need for a facility that is closer to my area. It appears that the closest facility is about 2 hours away, so caregivers will have a relatively long commute to the facility if they wanted to visit their family member. It would have also been helpful if more resources were provided on the website for individuals who are not able to go to the facilities to meet with a worker in person.

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