Written Ethical Leadership Pillar Case Study – 15%This assignment accounts for 15% of the final grade and must be typed and submitted in CANVAS as a Microsoft Word document.  Your case study report will be a minimum of 2,500 words, 1.5-spaced and 12-point font.  Use correct grammar, spelling and sentence structure.  You must use at least seven (7) of Maxwell’s Irrefutable Laws of Leadership and all four (4) ethical theories in your case study report.  Your responses are expected to include analysis, reasoning, explanation, and examples – conclusory statements without a full explanation shall receive no credit. Your ability to convey ideas through writing is imperative for this upper-level course.  The writing center has tutors available who can help you proofread your papers; however you will need to make an appointment in advance.  All written assignments are due no later than the start of class for each particular week.  In addition to specific assignment instructions, the following case study guidelines must be used when answering the ethical leadership case study.  These guidelines promote critical thinking which will enhance and improve your reflections.  Weekly ethical case study reading shall be assigned and you are expected to be prepared to discuss each assigned ethical case study in class – you must read each assigned case study — this will prepare you to write the Pillars Essay.ETHICAL LEADERSHIP PILLARS ESSAY:•    Chapter 22- Case Study – “The Race Is On” – PP. 219-220Maurice Charmer was the CEO of the very popular Racy Resorts chain of adult resorts.  There were over 200 Racy Resorts nationwide.  It was a publicly held company.  Stock prices had risen steadily for the first few years, but now they just seemed to be standing still.Maurice was close friends with Aldo Packer, a business writer for the influential World Daily newspaper. Maurice invited Aldo to lunch one day to discuss his situation and to seek assistance.  “It’s like this,” Maurice said, “Too much funny stuff has been going on at a few of the resorts and I know some reporter is going to blow this up very soon.  I know we should be more watchful, but everyone is an adult, after all. Anyway, I’ve been getting a lot of phone calls and it’s making me nervous.”“I don’t know who it is if that’s why you asked me here,” Aldo answered.  “No, that’s not it.  I just need a good column, something flattering about the resorts so maybe the shares will bounce up some.  Maybe I can take the shock of a bad write-up after that.”  “I could write a good column.  I could write a great column.  I’ve got shares myself, so it wouldn’t hurt me,” Aldo suggested.  One week later, Aldo’s very complimentary column appeared in the powerful World Daily.  Stocks bounced up in price.  Maurice called Aldo on the phone.  “What do you think?  Maybe it’s a good time to sell.” •    Instructions: In an essay of at least 2,500 words, analyze the hypothetical ethical dilemma provided, explain the challenges involved, propose solutions and recommendations considering alternatives, and explain the implementation of your solutions.  Use at least seven of Maxwell’s Laws of Leadership and all four of the ethical theories we have been studying.Guidelines for Ethical Leadership Case Study Reports•    Read the case study two times, once at a fairly brisk pace, and then again slowly and carefully, noting important information and facts.•    Construct a timeline of events leading to the leadership and ethical situations being considered.•    Identify all of the significant characters in the case.•    Identify the problem, conflict, or core issue and define it.  Is there more than one?•    Analyze the case.  List the important factors in the case that affect your analysis (for example: main character(s), location and type of property, time of year, etc.).•    List items you feel must be addressed in developing a solution to the scenario (such as specific events, underlying issues, attitudes or feelings of the characters, etc.).•    Identify a solution (or solutions) to the dilemma.  Do not simply choose the first solution that comes to mind.  Thoughtfully consider options and meaningful applications of theories you have learned in class.•    Evaluate the solution.  If this solution was implemented in a real-world situation, what would be the consequences?  Would it be effective?  Might it cause some new problems?•    Look at the case study again, taking the perspective of a different character in the scenario.  Explore the problem(s) and potential solutions from that character’s perspective.The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership (Maxwell’s Laws of Leadership)According to John Maxwell, there are 21 irrefutable laws of leadership:1. The Law of the lid.Your leadership is like a lid or a ceiling on your organization. Your business will not rise beyond the level your leadership allows. That’s why when a corporation or team needs to be fixed, they fire the leader.2. The Law of Influence.Leadership is simply about influencing people – nothing more, nothing less. The true test of a leader is to ask him or her to create positive change in an organization. If you cannot create change, you cannot lead. Being a leader is not about being first, or being an entrepreneur, or being the most knowledgeable, or being a manager. Being a leader is not just holding a leadership position. (“It’s not the position that makes a leader, but the leader who makes a position.”) Positional leadership especially does not work in volunteer organizations. The very essence of all power to influence lies in getting the other person to participate. “He, who thinks he leads, but has no followers, is only taking a walk.”3. The Law of Process.Leadership is learned over time. And it can be learned. People skills, ethics, emotional strength, vision, momentum, and timing are all areas that can and should be learned. Leaders are always learners.4. The Law of Navigation.Anyone can steer the ship, but it takes a leader to chart the course. Vision is defined as the ability to see the whole trip before leaving the dock. A leader will also see obstacles before others do. A leader sees more, sees farther, and sees before others. A navigator (leader) listens – he finds out about grassroots level reactions. Navigators balance optimism with realism. Preparation is the key to good navigation. “It’s not the size of the project; it’s the size of the leader that counts.”5. The Law of E.F. Hutton.Hutton was America’s most influential stock market analyst. When he spoke, everyone listened. When real leaders speak, people automatically listen. Conversely, in any group, you can identify the real leaders by looking for those who people listen to. According to Margaret Thatcher, “being in power is like being a lady – if you have to tell people you are, you aren’t.”  Factors involved in being accepted as a new real leader include character, building key relationships, information, intuition, experience, past success, and ability.6. The Law of Solid Ground.Trust is the foundation for all effective leadership. When it comes to leadership, there are no shortcuts. Building trust requires competence, connection and character.7. The Law of Respect.People naturally follow people stronger than themselves. Even natural leaders tend to fall in behind those who they sense have a higher “leadership quotient” than themselves.8. The Law of Intuition.Leaders evaluate everything with a Leadership bias. Leaders see trends, resources and problems, and can read people.9. The Law of Magnetism.Leaders attract people like themselves. Who you are is who you attract.  Handy hint: “Staff” your weaknesses. If you only attract followers, your organization will be weak. Work to attract leaders rather than followers if you want to build a truly strong organization.10. The Law of Connection.You must touch the heart before you ask people to follow. Communicate on the level of emotion first to make a personal connection.11. The Law of the Inner Circle.A leader’s potential is determined by those closest to him. “The leader finds greatness in the group, and helps the members find it in themselves.” 12. The Law of Empowerment.Only secure leaders give power to others. Mark Twain said, “Great things can happen when you don’t care who gets the credit.”  Another point to ponder… “Great leaders gain authority by giving it away.”13. The Law of Reproduction.It takes a leader to rise up a leader. Followers can’t do it, and neither can institutional programs “It takes one to know one, to show one, to grow one.” The potential of an organization depends on the growth of its leadership.14. The Law of Buy-In.People buy in to the leader first, then the vision. If they don’t like the leader but like the vision, they get a new leader. If they don’t like the leader or the vision, they get a new leader. If they don’t like the vision but like the leader, they get a new vision.15. The Law of Victory.Leaders find a way for the team to win. “You can’t win WITHOUT good athletes, but you CAN lose with them.”  Unity of vision, diversity of skills plus a leader is needed for a win.16. The Law of Momentum.You can’t steer a ship that isn’t moving forward. It takes a leader to create forward motion.17. The Law of Priorities.Activity is not necessarily accomplishment. We need to learn the difference. “A leader is the one who climbs the tallest tree, surveys the entire situation, and yells “Wrong Jungle!” If you are a leader, you must learn the three “R’s”- a) what’s Required, b) what gives the greatest Return, c) what brings the greatest Reward.18. The Law of Sacrifice.A leader must give up to go up. Successful leaders must maintain an attitude of sacrifice to turn around an organization. One sacrifice seldom brings success. As he worked to turn around the Chrysler Corporation, Lee Iacocca slashed his own salary to $1 per year. “When you become a leader, you lose the right to think about yourself.”19. The Law of Timing.When to lead is as important as what to do and where to go. Only the right action at the right time will bring success.20. The Law of Explosive Growth.To add growth, lead followers. To multiply growth, lead leaders. “It is my job to build the people who are going to build the company.”21. The Law of Legacy.A leader’s lasting value is measured by succession. “Leadership is the one thing you can’t delegate. You either exercise it – or abdicate it.”Ethical Analysis TheoriesUtilitarianism: The Greatest Good•    An action is morally justified if it maximizes happiness and minimizes unhappiness.•    Shorthand statement — the greatest good for the greatest number of people.•    Jeremy Bentham argued that happiness and unhappiness are identical to the amount of pleasure and pain one experiences because everybody desires pleasure and wishes to avoid pain.  But how do we (or can we) quantify this?  Might not one person’s pleasure be another person’s pain?•    John Stuart Mill stated that some types of pleasure are qualitatively superior to other types.  Thus, it is not just a matter of the quantity of pleasure, but also its quality.  His statement that it is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied sums up his viewpoint.  Do you agree with Mill?•    Common criticisms of utilitarianism:1.    You can’t really quantify things like happiness or unhappiness.  2.    Even if you could quantify happiness and unhappiness, some things like freedom are more important than even a large quantity of happiness and should not be traded away for happiness.  3.    Utilitarianism can justify actions that violate people’s rights and it may lead to unfairness or injustice because it does not take into account the distribution of benefits and harms.  •    Act Utilitarianism — asks which individual actions lead to the greatest good for the greatest number — those are the right or ethical actions.•    Rule Utilitarianism — asks which moral rules lead to the greatest happiness — those are the rules that are right or ethical.Kantian Ethics: Duties and Rights•    A deontological ethical theory is one that states that one must act out of a sense of duty and that actions are moral or immoral based on their nature, not on their consequences.  It is the motive that counts.  •    Kant’s universal rules are rules that must be followed regardless of the consequences.  Our duty to follow them remains unchanged under all circumstances.  Do you agree with this?  •    The categorical imperative is Kant’s basic rule of morality and it is twofold:  It states that we must be able to make it a universal rule for all to follow — whatever rule we are following (version one), and that we must always treat every human being as an end, not a means (as a person, not a thing; version two).  It is very close to the golden rule, but it is not quite the same.  The golden rule depends on what we would want, while Kant’s categorical imperative does not depend on our wants or desires.  According to Kant, we must treat each person as someone with his or her own independent moral worth.  That means each person is entitled to a free and autonomous existence.  Only persons can be free and autonomous because only persons are rational and able to reason.  To use another person for your own purpose is to degrade him or her to the status of a thing and is immoral.  What do you think of this?•    Negative rights vs. positive rights:1.    Negative rights are those in which others are prohibited from interfering with your ability to freely choose.  (Right to privacy, right to have promises made to you kept, right to be treated honestly, etc.).2.    Positive rights include the right to have others provide something for you.  (Right to health care, right to secondary education, right to basic food and shelter, etc.).•    Libertarians endorse negative rights (rights against coercion) but do not endorse positive rights.  They claim that we never have an obligation to provide anything for anybody unless there is a contractual obligation to do so.  Libertarians are so focused on property rights that they disagree with Kant about other forms of human rights that may conflict with property rights.  How do you feel about libertarianism vs. egalitarianism?  An Ethic of Justice: Treating Others Fairly•    Three types of justice according to Aristotle:1.    Distributive justice divides the benefits and burdens of society and the economy among individuals.2.    Retributive justice determines what is just and fair regarding retribution or punishment (“does the punishment fit the crime”).3.    Compensatory justice is concerned with the type of compensation (for example, payment for damages) an individual should receive for a wrong done to him or her.•    Some believe justice requires welfare payments to the neediest people.  The answer to this will likely depend on views one has about individuals, society, and human nature.  Those who see human beings as isolated individuals, as libertarians do, would likely answer this question “no.”  Those with a more social and/or egalitarian outlook will likely answer “yes.”  Which do you agree with?•    According to John Rawls, the original position is the position of people who do not know where they will end up in the society.•    According to Rawls, the veil of ignorance keeps people in the original position from knowing their actual characteristics, i.e., people do not know whether they will be male or female, rich or poor, African-American, Caucasian, short, tall, etc.  Do you believe this helps foster ethical decision making? •    The principle of equal liberty states that each person has an equal right to maximum liberty compatible with the like liberty for all, i.e., civil liberties — freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from arbitrary arrest, and freedom to hold (own) property.  Applied to business, it requires businesses to not invade employees’ privacy, to respect their freedom of conscience regarding political beliefs and activities, etc.  Why is the principle of equal liberty important for the study of ethics?•    In business, the difference principle protects the most disadvantaged person.  Any inequality has to benefit the least advantaged person, not just the more privileged.  Everyone must benefit from the inequality.  What does this mean?  Virtue Ethics: Aristotle and the Good Life•    Virtue ethics looks at the type of person someone is and compares this to what kind of person we believe someone should be.  It examines character rather than action.  A good person is a virtuous person. •    According to Aristotle, there are four fundamental moral virtues:1.    Courage — brave enough to do the right thing2.    Temperance — shows moderation in all things3.    Justice — ability to give others exactly what they deserve4.    Prudence — wisdom to know what is right