Question Description

this is a geography assignment, make sure to answer all the question about 5-6 pages long. answer all the question fully is most important thing!

Lab 1

Introduction to Maps and Geography on the Web


  • Read through this entire handout.
  • Answer each question in a separate write-up.
  • Attach your .doc, .docx or .pdf write-up to Canvas

This lab introduces you to Maps, GIS, Map Projections, and Geography on the Web. It will guide you through various different types of online interfaces used by many Geographers. This lab will also guide you through Examples of Remote Sensing and the imagery produced by the satellites. You will learn how to calculate Latitude and Longitude for various different locations and be able to see them visually. Lastly, you will have a visual representation of various wavelengths with a depiction of San Francisco.

Part 1: Industries Using Geospatial Technology

Geospatial technology is being used in a variety of applications in various different fields today. Go onto: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. this site provides you with a list of a numerous amount of different fields that are using geospatial technology today and it also describes how GIS is being utilized. Examine a few that are connected to law enforcement & some that are connected to “Natural Resources”

Answer the following questions.

1. How is GIS being utilized in some real-world, on-the-job applications in the fields of public safety & the environment?

2. Who in these fields is using GIS & Why?

Part 2: The Geographic Coordinate System

Another key element of representing data on the map is the coordinate system. The coordinate system relates every location on the map to a location on the earth through a defined system. This is also called georeferencing. One major type of georeferencing is latitude and longitude, which divides the earth into a grid-like coordinate system.


Latitude lines are parallel to the earth’s equator. Latitude lines run from 90ºN at the north pole to 0º (the equator) to 90ºS at the south pole. Lines of latitude are noted as being either NORTH, or SOUTH, meaning north or south of the equator. So, for example, the Longitude lines are equidistant lines (they are all the same length) that run from the north pole to the south pole.


Longitude lines run from 180ºE to 0º (at the prime meridian which runs through Greenwich, England) to 180ºW. Lines of longitude are expressed as being either EAST or WEST, meaning east or west of the prime meridian. The international date line is located where 180ºW meets 180ºE.

How we divide latitude and longitude

Latitude and longitude lines are expressed in degrees ( º ), minutes ( ‘ ) and seconds ( ” ) with a directional notation (N, S, E or W). Minutes and seconds run from 0 to 60 (e.g. 60 seconds equals one minute, 60 minutes equals one degree). For example, something that was 120 degrees, 10 minutes and 30 seconds west longitude would be denoted 120º10’30?W. The ‘squares’ defined by latitude and longitude are really not squares at all because they are on the spherical earth (though they look like squares on a flat map!).

For example, California is approximately between 30 and 40 degrees north latitude. The vertical lines are lines of longitude. You can read the degrees of longitude along the middle of the earth. For example, California is between 120 and 130 degrees west longitude.

Latitude and longitude can also be expressed in decimal degrees. With decimal degrees, the entire location is compressed into a single number. So, just as 2 1/2 can also be expressed as 2.5, 37° 21? 45.2082?N and 122° 7? 42.5172?W can be expressed as 37.362558, -122.128477. Note that in the system of decimal degrees, we have lost the letter designations of N,S,E,W. Instead, latitude in the northern hemisphere is a positive value, latitude in the southern hemisphere is a negative value. A longitude in the eastern hemisphere is a positive value, a longitude in the western hemisphere is a negative value.

Go to: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

This website allows you to input the name of a location and state or county and it will return the latitude and longitude.

Answer the following questions.

3. What is the latitude and longitude of the Golden Gate Bridge in degrees and minutes? Show your work

4. What is the latitude and longitude of the Grand Canyon in degrees and minutes?Show your work

National Map

Watch:Introduction to the The National Map (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Introduction to the The National Map

Then go to: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Answer the following:

5. Search for your own local area- what products are available for you to download?

6. What types of data can be accessed via The National Map besides boundaries & hydrography?

Part 3: Examining the Effects of Different Map Projections

Various map projections misrepresent Earth in different ways, with each projection distorting certain features and representing other features accurately. We will examine visually what the various different types of projections look like.

Go to: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Then select data library on the right-hand side and then select open, then on the new screen in section 1 select ‘One Attribute’, in section 2 select ‘people’, in section 3 select ‘choropleth’, in section 4 select ‘no’ and then click ‘Ok’

You will see that a map was generated, you can then go in and change the color sequences on the bottom left-hand corner. Now on the upper right-hand corner of your screen, you will see a tab that says ‘projections’ click on the tab. Click on the ‘Mercator Projection’ and then hit ‘apply’.

7. How does the Mercator projection alter the map that was generated?

8. What kinds of distortions appear to be built into the Mercator projection?

Now click on the projection tab and select the ‘Cylindrical Equal Area’ projection and select apply.

9. How does the Cylindrical Equal Area projection alter the map that was generated?

10. What kinds of distortions appear to be built into the Cylindrical Equal Area projection?

Part 4: Remote Sensed Imagery Online

Go to:

Zoom Earth allows you to view images from different types of remotely sensed data.

In the home page you can select the date that you want to see select ‘August 25th, 2017’ make sure the ‘map labels’ tab is selected in white and then type in ‘Houston’ in the search box and select the search icon.

11. What do you hypothesize is happening based on the color of the map?

12. Press the – button about 5-6 times and zoom out, based on the image was your hypothesis correct?

13. What is the Latitude and Longitude of this area?

Part 5: Difference between Ture Color & False Color Composites

watch: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

14. What is False Color Imagery?

15. At what wavelength is Infrared?