The abstract of a scientific research paper is a 150-250 word introductory paragraph that consists of multiple important points relating to the research paper. The abstract paragraph follows the title page and is generally, the most seen and read portion of scientific research papers. (APUS, 2016) It offers a broad overview with key terms and questions that lets a prospective reader know if that specific research paper will meet their academic needs. The abstract paragraph should contain the issue or research gap that the study is researching and why that particular issue or gap should be studied. The abstract should also outline the key terms of the research paper. These key-terms are important to identify if the research paper is going to be electronically indexed. The outlined key-terms allow a perspective reader searching through an online database to query databases, using key-terms, and find relevant research papers more quickly.

The next section of a scientific research paper is the introduction paragraph. An important aspect of the introduction paragraph is the formation of a hook that tries to capture the attention of the reader. The hook is trying to convince the reader to continue reading the research paper. The introduction paragraph should expand on the purpose of the research that the abstract paragraph outlined. Expanding on the abstract paragraph gives the reader yet another opportunity to assess if the research paper is relevant to their purposes. There are some additional questions that need to be answered by the introduction paragraph, to include, what makes the research, or proposed research, important? What are the objectives of the study? What is the proposed hypothesis, if there is one? How does the research design methods and the hypothesis correlate to one another? What are the potential implications of the findings of the research? (APUS, 2016) These questions should be answered as briefly as possible, this will keep the introduction from dragging on or going into too much detail. A literature review should also be included in the introduction paragraph. The literature review section should “describe the results of prior research that is considered pertinent to his or her own study.” (Ellis, Hartley, & Walsh, 2009) Reviewing these previous research studies can help the reader see where the gap in research that is being researched originated from. Finally, an elaboration on why the research was important and why the reader should be interested in the research is the final piece of the introduction paragraph.

The narrative hook is important because it is meant to entice the reader into reading further into the research. Much like an advertisement on the side of the road or a commercial. However, rhetorical questions should be avoided when trying to bait the reader into delving deeper. Rhetorical questions should be avoided because it can inadvertently speak to a bias that the reader holds. When the reader reads a rhetorical question, the writer no longer controls the perspective the reader is taking. The introduction or bait should not elicit an inherent emotional reaction in the reader. It should be cold, hard data.


American Public University System (Ed.). (2016). Beginning the Writing Process: Abstract and Introduction Construction.

Ellis, L., Hartley, R. D., & Walsh, A. (2009). Research methods in criminal justice and criminology : an interdisciplinary approach.


The Introduction to a paper of this form should be straight and bottom line up from, giving the reader what the research focus is. A research proposal usually is a description of what the student or researcher plans to study and include in the final research paper. It does not contain the results or the final conclusions (Ellis, Hartley, & Walsh, 2010). An abstract for a research proposal is an independent, small paragraph, located at the beginning of your research paper and should consists of the highlights of your paper that will brief the literature that was reviewed. Generally, an abstract is the essential meaning of the work and why the work is needed; the hypothesis is what a major portion of the data collect and what it will conclude (Ellis, Hartley, & Walsh, 2010).

The abstract also speaks about the data collection, the sample population and the potential impact of the work with the future study objectives. Think of it as a short summary of your main points or research, an initial introduction to the work, to include you synopsis of everything that in-compass the paper (Paiz et al, 2015).

An abstract for a research proposal should include the scope, an objective, what type of methods will be used. A research proposal abstract should not include a conclusion or results, hence it is a proposal. Your abstract word count should be around no more than 350.

When writing an abstract for a research proposal paper a rhetorical questions should be avoided. A research paper does not warrant an opinion of the readers (Ellis, Hartley, & Walsh, 2010). This type of paper is instead intended to give you bona fide data from collected data that is received. Some people become disinterested from the beginning when a rhetorical guess is asked. The true reality is some people just want to read what information has been gathered (Paiz et al, 2015).

A writing technique known as a narrative hook (or hook) located at beginning of a story, article or book which is comprised of a few passages that is an attention grabber, it “snares” the reader so that they will or would continue reading.

Narrative hooks regularly assume a vital part in tension thrillers and fiction works. The hook works either by intriguing so as to promise fervor of or the crowd needs and who subsequently need to discover what happens.

An introduction could be on to three pages. It is important to remember that with the abstract and introduction, the researchers are baiting consumers and presenting brief design, methods, and facts to achieve the hook. An introduction should beckon to the reader, but not reveal the ending, after all, you don’t read the last page in a murder mystery first. An abstract, introduction and the keywords all help researchers draw consumers to their research, by providing small bites of the apple to the reader.


Ellis, L., Hartley, R. D., & Walsh, A., (2010). Research methods in criminal justice and criminology: An interdisciplinary approach. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Paiz, J.M., Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M.,